ISBT Guidelines for Purity
Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas, liquifiable to a heavy, volatile, colorless liquid. The function of CO2 in beverages is to provide effervescence, some acidity and some protection against microbiological growth without contributing any off-appearances, off-odor, off-taste, or undesirable levels of trace impurities. However, CO2, is obtained as a co-product from the manufacture of various chemicals, from the thermal decomposition of carbonates during the production of lime, from the combustion of carbonaceous material, from fermentation processes, and from gases found in natural springs and wells. Thus, carbon dioxide must undergo effective purification to be considered suitable for its intended use as a direct food additive in beverages. Gas suppliers must identify, measure and control the levels of trace impurities in the purified CO2, and similarly, carbon dioxide users have a responsibility to take appropriate steps to ensure that suppliers have met this responsibility.
The International Society of Beverage Technologists (ISBT) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Guidelines have been prepared to provide guidance on the key characteristics for the quality and purity of carbon dioxide used in beverages. These guidelines are also intended to provide assistance to carbon dioxide suppliers and users in achieving compliance with applicable international regulatory standards.
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