Archive for the ‘CO2’ Category

CO2 Consumption in a Brewery

November 19, 2014 Leave a comment

A barrel is 4.2 cubic feet. So at sea level and 70 deg. F a 5 barrel tank will have 21 cubic feet of gas in it when the gauge reads 0 psi. The volume of gas required to take that tank up to 14.7 (1 atmosphere) will be another 21 cubic feet.

In other words, the volume of gas used (assuming no waste) is 4.2 cubic feet per atmosphere of pressure. The math looks like this: number of barrels x 4.2 x atmospheres = total volume of system. Remember that when the gauge reads 0 at sea level the pressure is already at 1 atmosphere.

Source: Dan @ McDantim

Categories: Brewing, CO2

ISBT Guidelines for Purity

June 25, 2014 Leave a comment

Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, noncombustible gas, liquifiable to a heavy, volatile, colorless liquid. The function of CO2 in beverages is to provide effervescence, some acidity and some protection against microbiological growth without contributing any off-appearances, off-odor, off-taste, or undesirable levels of trace impurities. However, CO2, is obtained as a co-product from the manufacture of various chemicals, from the thermal decomposition of carbonates during the production of lime, from the combustion of carbonaceous material, from fermentation processes, and from gases found in natural springs and wells. Thus, carbon dioxide must undergo effective purification to be considered suitable for its intended use as a direct food additive in beverages. Gas suppliers must identify, measure and control the levels of trace impurities in the purified CO2, and similarly, carbon dioxide users have a responsibility to take appropriate steps to ensure that suppliers have met this responsibility.

The International Society of Beverage Technologists (ISBT) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Guidelines have been prepared to provide guidance on the key characteristics for the quality and purity of carbon dioxide used in beverages. These guidelines are also intended to provide assistance to carbon dioxide suppliers and users in achieving compliance with applicable international regulatory standards.

Continue reading at Food Safety Magazine

Categories: CO2

Phoenix Fire CO2 Incident Review

May 13, 2014 Leave a comment
Categories: CO2, CO2 Levels, CO2Affects, Safety

Typical Carbonation Levels in Beer

November 7, 2013 Leave a comment

We are often asked what the carbonation levels are in various draught beers, so we can determine proper blend ratio’s of Nitrogen and CO2 using our Nitro-Draught. The following are some typical examples, but the best specific answer can be found by the brewer.

Porters & Stouts: 1.0 to 2.3
British Ales: 1.5 to 2.0
European Lagers: 2.2 to 2.7
Belgian Ales: 1.9 to 2.4
American Craft Ales and Lagers: 2.0 to 2.7
Lambic: 2.4 to 2.8
Wheat Beer: 3.0 to 4.5

Brewers: We want to add your specific CO2 volumes. Please contact us!

Categories: Beer, CO2, CO2 Levels, Draft Systems

Carbonation alters our perception of sweetness

October 9, 2013 Leave a comment

The carbonation of soft drinks could mean that zero-calorie sweeteners taste closer to suger, but may mean that drinks that do contain sugar are -percieved as less sweet.
Carbonation alters the brain’s perception of sweetness and makes it difficult for the brain to determine the difference between sugar and artificial sweeteners, a new study has found.

An essential component of many soft drinks, carbonation, could affect the way we perceive the sweet tastes of such drinks – and could help to ‘disguise’ zero-calorie sweeteners as sugar.

Led by Dr Rosario Cuomo from “Federico II” University, Italy, the research team used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of carbonation on brain processing of sweet stimuli, which they suggest has relevance to studies of food selection and satiety.

They found that the presence of carbonation produced an overall decrease in the neural processing of sweetness-related signals in general, but noted that processing was especially reduced for sugars such as sucrose.

“This study proves that the right combination of carbonation and artificial sweeteners can leave the sweet taste of diet drinks indistinguishable from normal drinks,” said Cuomo.

“Tricking the brain about the type of sweet could be advantageous to weight loss – it facilitates the consumption of low-calorie drinks because their taste is perceived as pleasant as the sugary, calorie-laden drink.”

However, the team noted that there is also a downside to this effect; the combination of carbonation and sugar could stimulate increased sugar and food consumption since the brain perceives less sugar intake and energy balance is impaired.

Study details

Writing in Gastroenterology , the team investigated the interference between carbon dioxide (CO2) and the perception of sweetness, and the differential effects of CO2 on sucrose and artificial sweeteners (aspartame-acesulfame [As-Ac], a common combination used in diet beverages) by monitoring the changes in regional brain activity using fMRI.

“Our data suggest that CO2 modulates the perception of sweetness, reducing the global neural processing of sweetness,” said the authors – who noted that carbonation reduced processing of sucrose more than of As-Ac.

“The reduced discrimination between sucrose and As-Ac induced by CO2 would promote the consumption of low-calorie beverages and would converge with CO2-induced gastric distention in limiting caloric intake,” they said.

Source: Food Navigator

Categories: CO2, Taste

High Pressure CO2 tank explosion destroys 700 gallon aquarium

August 8, 2013 Leave a comment

According to the TV news station KOIN, a CO2 tank located in a shed attached to a house in a Sandy, Oregon exploded due to a fire. The explosion reportedly launched the CO2 tank into a massive 700 gallon aquarium in the adjacent house, breaking it and unfortunately killing its livestock. The news report does not detail the type of aquarium or whether the CO2 tank was used for the aquarium.

Source: Advanced Aquarist

Categories: CO2, Safety

Old fashion, high pressure CO2 cylinder explodes at Michigan bar

July 20, 2013 Leave a comment

The afternoon of June 25 was pretty much like any other for Dorothy Sullivan and the patrons of her Eastpointe bar.

Until the building exploded.
“Everybody thought a bomb went off,” said Sullivan, who owns the bar of the same name on Nine Mile Road. “… It blew up two or three rooms.”

No bomb detonated, but the results were similar when a C02 (carbon dioxide) tank exploded. The pressurized containers are devices that put carbonation in drinks. They’re used mostly by bar and restaurant owners as part of their normal operations.

But the exploding tank was anything but normal. Sullivan estimated damages to her bar at $100,000, and the incident drew the attention of local and federal authorities, who have launched an investigation.

“It was impressive to see (the damage caused),” said Ed Szymanski, acting Eastpointe fire chief. “The bar was pretty crowded at the time, but fortunately (customers) were at the front end of the bar.”

While the exploding tank seemed an isolated incident, Szymanski said, he didn’t sleep well at the prospect of more tanks at more establishments throughout southeastern Michigan. The following day, he contacted the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. That agency oversees the transport of CO2 containers.

“I wanted to know why (the tank blew up),” Szymanski said.

A federal investigator was dispatched from Chicago to look into the incident. His investigation revealed the CO2 tank was delivered to Sullivan’s by North American Coil and Beverage Group Inc., also based in Eastpointe, Szymanski said.

The tank in question was manufactured in the 1970s and records indicated it had not been tested in many years. Regulations call for testing every five to seven years, Szymanski said.

Perhaps most disturbing to the chief: Federal officials estimated hundreds, and perhaps thousands of similar tanks delivered by North American Coil and Beverage are still in operation.

“They’re spread out from here to Toledo,” the chief said. “Probably none of these have been properly tested … I don’t want to see anybody get hurt.”

Officials from North American Coil and Beverage could not be reached for comment, but Szymanski said the company has cooperated with authorities to help track down the cylinders and get them out of circulation.

Szymanski sent out mass emails to every public safety agency he could think of to spread the word of the potential dangers.

Federal authorities have taken no action yet, but they hope to conclude their investigation and issue a report soon, possibly “by the end of the week,” said Jeannie Layson, spokeswoman for the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.

Meanwhile, Sullivan’s remains open, but Sullivan acknowledged, “It’s been hard.”

But she also considers herself and her customers fortunate.

“We were lucky in this bar,” she said.

Source: Daily Tribune

Categories: CO2, Safety

Degassing Wine

July 2, 2013 Leave a comment

It is not uncommon for wine to absorb carbon dioxide, the gas created as a byproduct of fermentation. This especially tends to occur when fermentation slows to the point that bubbles escape the airlock at a rate slower than one bubble every 15 minutes. The positive pressure of CO2 in the headspace between the wine and the airlock bears equally on the wine and the liquid inside the airlock. Some of that CO2 is simply absorbed into the wine. The result is a wine that fizzes when poured. It may not fizz as much as a sparkling wine, but it greatly detracts from a wine that is supposed to be a still (nonsparkling) wine.

There are several ways to release this gas and return the wine to a true still wine. The simplest way is to simply stir the wine with a wooden dowel or a plastic rod. Stir the wine vigorously for about a minute and then replace the airlock and let the wine settle down for 30-45 minutes. Then repeat the procedure several times until the wine stops giving up CO2 gas. I use a plastic rod used to pull curtains closed. I heated one end of the rod in boiling water for a few minutes, layed the heated end on a wooden cutting board, and gently tapped it with a wooden mallet to flatten the end of it into a narrow “paddle” shape. I sanitize it by standing in upright (paddle-end down) in a 22-inch hydrometer test jar for 5 minutes filled with sulfite solution. I then put the paddle end into the carboy and attach the other end to an electric drill. This is undoubtedly safer than using a wooden dowel because the plastic cannot absorb bacteria or mold the way the wooden dowel can.

There are several products out there which are essentially a long rod with spring-loaded folding blades at one end. The opposite end is inserted in an electric drill and the blade end inserted into the carboy. The blades unfold inside the carboy and the electric drill is turned on. The propeller-style blades are raised and lowered throughout the body of wine to degasse a greater volume. After 30 seconds or so, the drill is turned off and the rod is withdrawn from the carboy. The airlock is refitted and 30-45 minutes later the procedure is repeated. This procedure works much faster and better than simply stirring with a rod or dowel, but my “paddle” works just fine for me and so I’m staying with it.

A word of caution when using an electric drill. Obviously, you do not want to get the electric cord or the electric motor wet, so be careful. Also, when you first insert the paddle or propeller-type device, tap the trigger a few times for just a couple of seconds to see how much gas is in the wine. If there is a lot, foam will erupt from the mouth of the carboy that — at worse — could shoot up into the electric drill before you realize what is happening and electrocute you. Just to be safe, wear heavy duty rubber gloves. At the very least it will be a mess to clean up, and of course will reduce the volume of your wine. Go slowly and be safe — and don’t forget the rubber gloves!

After a wine is degassed, it should sit for a while under airlock to “recover” from the procedure, as degassing a wine tends to “flatten” its taste for a couple of months. After sitting under airlock for the prescribed period, the wine can be bottled.

Source: Jack keller Wine

Categories: CO2, Wine

CO2 and Carbonation levels

July 2, 2013 Leave a comment

The following approximations relate to pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) at 20 °C at sea level:

1 volume CO2 = 1 atmosphere = 1 bar = 100 kilopascals = 14.7 psi (pounds per square inch) = 1.8 grams of CO2 per litre volume.

Source: Winegrowers

Categories: CO2

Potential Dangers of Carbonated Beverage Systems

December 4, 2012 Leave a comment

By Gary Scribner, National Board Member, National Board of Boiler & Pressure Vessel Inspectors

Recent incidents involving high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) gases caused by improperly installed and poorly maintained carbonated beverage systems led to over a dozen hospitalizations in Pooler, Georgia, and Phoenix, Arizona, and identified the acute need to raise awareness of potential safety concerns related to these systems.

Currently, there are over 1,250,000 beverage systems that are filled on-site in the United States alone. Carbon dioxide liquid has an expansion rate of approximately 555%. Its vapor is 1.5 times heavier than air and displaces oxygen. The dangers associated with CO2 exposure are based on the concentration percentage and amount of time a person is exposed.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) permissible exposure limit for an eight-hour time weighted average is only 0.5%. A 3% concentration results in deeper breathing, reduced hearing, headaches, increased heart rate, and has a short-term exposure limit of 15 minutes. Concentrations of 10% and greater lead to unconsciousness in under a minute, and death if no actions are taken.

Liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) was developed in the early 1900s specifically for making carbonated beverages. Historically, cylinders are filled with liquid CO2 at the distributors’ facilities and transported to businesses for use in carbonated beverage dispensing machines. This method still exists today and utilizes cylinders ranging from 10 to 100 pounds of liquid CO2. The cylinders are classified by the actual weight of liquid CO2 used to fill them.

These distribution systems have a good safety record since the cylinders are filled off-site and are designed for a much higher working pressure than the ones at which they normally operate. Problems associated with this process typically result from improper handling and storage of the cylinders, as well as lack of employee knowledge about the potential dangers of CO2 systems. These cylinders fall within Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations since they are transported via roads and highways. Other than DOT regulations, few regulations exist for this type of process.

Approximately 20 years ago the carbonated beverage industry developed a system to fill cylinders on-site at businesses that use carbonated dispensing machines, giving CO2 distributors/suppliers the capability to service more customers less often by filling the larger storage vessels using tank trucks. Today, almost every gasoline station, convenience store, bar, and restaurant has a carbonated beverage system. Cylinders used in this system contain a much larger volume of liquid CO2 and can range from 200 pounds to 750 pounds of liquid CO2. The size of the storage cylinders is based on both the volume of beverages served at the location and the delivery frequency of the distributor/supplier.

Cylinders which are not transported are not DOT-regulated or -certified cylinders, and are designed for a working pressure from 300 psi to 350 psi and are double-walled. The inner vessel is the storage area while the outer area has a coil and is under a vacuum to facilitate the change of state from liquid to gas.

Most systems using these tanks utilize a fill box that is installed on the outside of the building. It should be noted that in some instances the owner of the building will not permit a fill box to be installed. In these cases, the distributor /supplier either disconnects the piping from the CO2 cylinder or brings the fill hose inside the business to fill the cylinder. If a fill box exists, the box is fitted with a fill connection and a vent or relief connection, both of which must be properly piped out of the storage cylinder.

The internal pressure of these CO2 cylinders varies based on the amount of liquid, ambient temperature, the vacuum in the outer vessel, and the volume of CO2 changing state at that time. Cylinders may reach the maximum working pressure when being filled or immediately after high-usage times resulting in the excess pressure being vented through the safety relief circuit of the system. This creates the highest potential for risk of CO2 to be released from the cylinder. Most cylinder manufacturers are very explicit regarding the installation instructions for these systems and require the vent or relief circuits to be piped to a fill box installed at a safe point of discharge outside the building. Additionally, the location of the vent or fill box should not be below grade or in any enclosed area outside the building. Several incidents involving injury and even death have occurred when the vent circuit was not in a free air flow area outside the building.

These systems are seldom regulated by local jurisdictions. Lack of knowledge of how the systems function, lack of proper detection equipment, and change in environment between the time of incident and an investigation have led to the lack of reporting and/or misreporting of incidents and near misses.

The following are incidents directly related to carbonated beverage system malfunctions due to: improper installation and/or maintenance, renovation to rooms or areas where the systems were installed without an engineering evaluation of the effect on the systems, and/or lack of knowledge about the dangers of CO2 gas:
September 2011 – Ten people hospitalized, including two firefighters, and one fatality at a fast food restaurant in Pooler, Georgia.
June 2011 – Evacuation of a fast food restaurant in Dorchester, United Kingdom.
May 2011 – Three hospitalized, including two firefighters, at a fast food restaurant in Phoenix, Arizona.
May 2010 – Evacuation of a movie theater in Des Moines, Iowa.
July 2008 – Two hospitalized from an incident in a bar in Benson, Nebraska.
April 2008 – One fatality in a hotel in Victoria, Australia.
August 2007 – Fatality of a waiter at a restaurant in Coronado, California (DOT cylinder).
January 2005 – Two fatalities, employee and delivery driver, outside a fast food restaurant in Sanford, Florida.
March 1998 – Two hospitalized and two treated at the scene at a fast food restaurant in the US. Location unknown.
996 – Fatality of a delivery driver outside a restaurant in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Some jurisdictions do require inspection of beverage systems that are filled on-site. Initial inspections revealed a violation rate of over 25% related to the safety/vent circuit installation statewide, with some isolated communities having close to a 100% violation rate.

Local considerations should be given as a means to detect carbon dioxide in businesses or places of public assembly that utilize bulk CO2 systems, and can include:
Prohibiting CO2 systems of any type from being installed below grade.
Prohibiting the filling of storage tanks inside a business and/or disconnecting any system piping to facilitate filling.
Mandating posted signage warning employees, customers, and first responders of the utilization of CO2 and the potential risk and symptoms associated with carbon dioxide exposure.
Additional consideration should be given to CO2 awareness training for emergency responders, businesses, and places of public assembly utilizing CO2, as well as obtaining CO2 detection equipment for first responders.

The public and jurisdictional authorities should be aware that carbon dioxide exists and has many uses within industry, especially the food industry. The OSHA incident reporting system has 20 pages of incidents and fatalities involving CO2 exposure. Additionally, carbon dioxide systems (almost identical to the carbonated beverage systems) have recently been discovered being utilized with large swimming pools to control pH and is now being used as a refrigerant in what are advertised as “green systems.”

Awareness and inspection of carbonated beverage systems is the key to ensuring the safety of emergency responders and the public.

For further information regarding CO2 systems, please contact the chief boiler inspector of your jurisdiction.

Gary is Deputy Chief of Broiler & Pressure Vessel Safety Unit of the Missouri Division of Fire Safety. This article was originally printed in the Summer 2012 National Board Bulletin of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.

Source: IBDEA

Categories: CO2